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The lack of ability of some cultures to deal with large numbers is not really surprising. European languages, When traced back to their earlier version, are very poor in number words and expressions. The ancient Gothic word for ten, tachund, is used to express the number as tachund tachund.
By the seventy century, the word teen had become interchangeable with the tachund or hund of the Anglo-Saxon language, and so was denoted as hund teontig,or ten times ten. The average person in the seventh century in Europe was not as familiar with numbers as we are today. In fact, to qualify as a witness in a count of low a man had to be able to count to nine!
It must have been within me grasp of the earliest humans to conceive that four birds are distinct from two birds; however, it is not an elementary step to associate the number 4, as connected with four birds, to the number 4, as connected with four rocks.
Associating a number as one of the qualities of a specific object is a great hindrance to the development of a true number sense. When the number 4 can be registered in the mind as a specific word, independent of the object being referenced, the individual is ready to take the first step toward the development of a notational system for numbers and, from there, to arithmetic.
Traces of the very first stages in the development of numeration can be seen in several living languages today. The numeration system of the Tsimshian language in British Columbia contains seven distinct sets of words for numbers according to the class of the item being counted: for counting flat objects and animals, for round objects and time, for people, for long objects and trees, for canoes, for measures, and For counting when no particular object is being numerated.
It seems that the last is a later development while the First six groups show the relics of an older system. This diversity of number names can also be found in some widely used languages such as Japanese.
Intermixed with the development of a number sense is the development of an ability to count. Counting is not directly related to the formation of a number concept because it is possible to count by matching the items being counted against a group of pebbles, grains of corn, or the counter's Fingers. These aids would have been indispensable to very early people who would hove Found the process impossible without some Form of mechanical aid.
Such aids, while different, are still used even by the most educated in today's society due to their convenience. All counting ultimately involves reference to something other than the things being counted. At first it may have been grains or pebbles but now it is a memorised sequence of words that happen to be the names of the numbers.
Write the correct letter, A-G.
The table below gives information about changes in modes of travel in England between and Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least words. Average d'IS tance m m1. Write about the following topic: Successfai sports professionals can earn a great deal more money than people in other important professions. Some people think this is fully justified while others think it is unfair. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Which instrument do you like listening to most?
Have you ever learned to play a musical mstrument? The history of moving pictures 31 Some photographs of a horse running showed A all feel off the ground. B at least one foot on the ground.
C two feet off the ground. B used available technology to make a new system. C was already an expert in motion picture technology. B people could only see very short films.
C the camera was very heavy. C used the American system. B a French and German team working together. C a German team who invented the word 'cinema'. B the camera. C the film projector. B adding three more film reels to the system. C making one of the film reels more effective.
Questions Reading Passage 1 has five marked paragraphs. Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. The study compared the proportion of wealth poured into transport by thirty-seven cities around the world. This included both the public and private costs of building, maintaining and using a transport system.
The study found that the Western Australian city of Perth is a good example of a city with minimal public transport. Professor Peter Newman,! STP Director, pointed out that these more efficient cities were able to put the difference into attracting industry and jobs or creating a better place to live.
According to Professor Newman, the larger Australian city of Melbourne is a rather unusual city in this sort of comparison. He describes it as two cities: 'A European city surrounded by a car-dependent one'. Melbourne's large tram network has made car use in the inner city much lower, but the outer suburbs have the same car-based structure as most other.
Australian cities. The explosion in demand for accommodation in the inner suburbs of Melbourne suggests a recent change in many people's preferences as to where they live, Newman says this is a new, broader way of considering public transport issues.
In the past, the case for public transport has been made on the basis of environmental and social justice considerations rather than economics. Newman, however, believes the study demonstrates that 'the auto-dependent city model is inefficient and grossly inadequate in economic as well as environmental terms'.
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One objection is climate. Some people say their city could not make more use of' public transport because it is either too hot or loo cold. For example, Newman accepts it would be hard for a city as hilly as Auckland to develop a really good rail network.
However, he points out that both Honk Kong and Zurich have managed to make a success of their rail systems, heavy and light respectively, though there are few cities in the world as hilly. A in fact Newman believes the main reason for adopting one sort oftransport over another is politics The more democratic the process, the more public transport ,s favored.
He considers Portland Oregon, a perfect example ofthis. Some years ago federal money was granted to build a new road. However, local pressure groups forced a referendum over whether to spend the money on light rail instead.
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The rail proposal won and the railway worked spectacularly well. In the years that have followed, more and more rail systems have been put in, dramatically changing the nature of the city Newman notes that Portland has about the same population as Perth and had a similar population density at the time.
B In the UK, travel times to work had been stable for at least six centuries, with people avoiding situations that required them to spend more than half an hourtravelling to work.
Trains and cars initially allowed people to live at greater distances without taking longer to reach their destination. However, public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems which now make commuting times far higher.
C There is a widespread belief that increasing wealth encourages people to live farther out where cars are the only viable transport. The example of European cities refutes that. They are often wealthier than their American counterparts but have not generated the same level of car use.
In Stockholm, car use has actually fallen in recent years as the city has become larger and wealthier. A new study makes this point even more starkly. Developing cities in Asia, such as Jakarta and Bangkok, make more use of the carthan wealthy Asian cities such as Tokyo and Singapore.
Cambridge ielts 6 test2.pdf - Listening Test 2 SECl'l ON 1...
D Newman believes one of the best studies on how cities built for cars might be converted to rail use is The Urban Village report, which used Melbourne as an example.
It found that pushino everyone into the city centre was not the best approach. Instead, the proposal advocated the creation of urban villages at hundreds of sites, mostly around railway stations.Scientists first posed this question in the mids, after researchers came upon a chemical agent that in rodents seemed to reproduce many of caloric restriction's benefits.
H The shipping container transformed ocean shipping into a highly efficient, intensely competitive business. In cities that developed later, the World Bank and Asian Development Bank discouraged the building of public transport and people have been forced to rely on cars -creating the massive traffic jams that characterize those cities.
In the end the fact remains that pharmaceutical companies have every right to make a profit and will continue to find new ways to increase sales. Name of his There are mat erials for working on study ski lls e. The study compared the proportion of wealth poured into transport by thirty-seven cities around the world.