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The reactor burned for ten days, and iodine should have been taken for more days. But no one listened to the scientists and the doctors! They pulled science and medicine into politics.
I went to the major towns, just twenty, thirty kilometres from the station. I needed more information. I took all the instruments to measure radiation. The next morning at 8 a. I was already sitting in Slyunkov's reception. Hours later a famous poet walked out of Slyunkov's office.
I knew him. He said to me, 'Comrade Slyunkov and I discussed Belarusian culture. If we don't save them! They've already put it out. I told him what I saw the day before. In the Ukraine, I had called there, they were already evacuating. We needed to talk about physics, but instead we talked about enemies. I have already consulted with Moscow, and they say everything's normal. The State always came first, and the value of human life was zero.
Everyone waited for the order, for the call, but no one did anything himself. Bureaucrats laughed at the Ukrainians. They were on their knees at the Kremlin asking for more money, medicine, radiation- measuring equipment. Meanwhile our man, Slyunkov, had taken fifteen minutes to lay out the situation.
We'll handle it ourselves. I kept speaking out. We kept making trips out there.
Our Institute was the first to put together a map of the contaminated areas. This is already history, the history of a crime. They took away all the Institute's measuring equipment. They just confiscated it, without any explanations. I began receiving threatening phone calls at home. You'll end up in a bad place' What do we do with this truth now?
How do we handle it? Thousands of Russian refugees from Armenia, Georgia, Abkhazia, Tajikistan, Chechnya, from anywhere where there's shooting, they come to this abandoned land and the abandoned houses that weren't destroyed and buried by special squadrons.
There are over 25 million ethnic Russians outside of Russia, a whole country, and there's nowhere for some of them to go but Chernobyl. All the talk about how the land, the water, the air can kill them sounds like a fairy tale to them.
They have their own tale, which is a very old one, and they believe in it, about how people kill each other with guns. Here's what I remember. In the first days after the accident, all the books at the library about radiation, about Hiroshima and Nagasaki, even about X-rays, disappeared. They said it was an order from above.
But the intuition, for any average person, of the extent of the environmental damage, is nothing less than frightening. Document after document related to the accident mentions contamination with caesium, strontium, plutonium. They all talk about radiation measurements in roentgen, becquerel, curie.
Dozens of maps show shaded areas in Ukraine and Belarus, Fig. How should this be translated into the air Belarusians breathe and the water Ukrainians drink?
How can people sow and harvest? How can they eat without fear? And how do we all understand the absurdity of the liquidators killing animals, burying houses, burying the earth itself? Digging pits on the ground to put away the contaminated soil and everything radiated? Myths of contamination have thrived around the globe, and yet not without a certain degree of truth.
All I remember is my mother telling me I couldn't eat chocolate from Europe. The milk in it might be contaminated. The media call us 'the world's nuclear watchdog'" Hansen, Nicknames and metaphors abound; Arkady Filin, one of the liquidators, called Chernobyl "this fantastic world, where the Apocalypse met the Stone Age" Alexievich, , Following are five more transcripts of interviews with "Chernobylites", as they have came to be called.
If there aren't any May bugs and no worms, that means strong radiation' 'What's radiation? Tell Grandma you need to leave. You'll stay with us. They didn't come out for two days, not a single one. They just stayed in their nests A map showing caesium contamination Source: Figure 9: Let the authorities worry about it. That's their problem.
And it's far away. We didn't even look at the map. But when they started putting labels on the milk that said "for children" and "for adults" that was a different story" cited in Alexievich, , Fig. But it was a Source: Knoth, real war, an atomic war. We had no idea, what's dangerous and what's not, what to watch out for, and what to ignore? No one Figure At school we'd been taught that his was a 'magical factory' that made 'energy out of nothing', where people in white robes sat and pushed buttons" cited in Alexievich, , 43 "We ran into an old lady.
Finally the driver Source: Knoth, speaks.
Maybe more than that, my documents got burned in the war. In the meantime, they were being sold in stores. When people stopped downloading milk from Rogachev, there suddenly appeared cans of milk without labels. And there are also hospitals and asylums specifically for the people from Chernobyl, in Moscow, in Kiev, in Minsk, in Gomel. With a population of 10 million people, Belarus has suffered the largest technological accident of the twentieth century as a national catastrophe.
But there are no nuclear plants in Belarus.
According to Belaruskaya Entsiklopedia, 23 percent of the country's land is contaminated, and living on it is one out of every five Belarusians, including , children. Among the demographic factors responsible for the depopulation of Belarus, radiation is number one. In the Gomel and Mogilev regions, where the contamination from Chernobyl was the greatest, mortality rates are 20 percent higher than birth rates, and the number of people with cancer, genetic mutations, mental retardation and neurological disorders Figs.
On 'The consequences of the Chernobyl accident' the Sakharov College on Radioecology reports that "it took less than a week for Chernobyl to become a problem for the entire world. And then there were other sicknesses "not caused by the radiation itself, but by the stresses connected with resettlement, loss of property, fear of radiation Following are another five quotes from interviews that, as one evacuee mentioned, turn from House of Horrors to Cartoons.
Annya with cancer and Ramzis with hydrocephalus Source: Knoth, Figure Minsk Novinky From the wife of a deceased fireman: Asylum "It was a hospital for people with acute radiation poisoning. Fourteen days. In fourteen days a person dies If anyone got indignant and wanted to take the coffin back home, they were told that the dead were now heroes, and that they no longer belonged to their families. They belonged to the State" cited in Alexievich, , 12 Source: Fusco, "The other day my daughter said to me: She's in tenth grade.
Her friends, too, they all think about Cancer Hospital it. We could have left, and decided not to. We were afraid. Here, we're all Chernobylites. Anywhere else, we're foreign, we're lepers. We're afraid of everything. We're afraid for our children, and for our grandchildren, who don't exist yet. They don't exist, and we're already afraid. People smile less, they sing less at holidays. Everyone's depressed. It's a feeling of doom" Source: Fusco, cited in Alexievich, , From two liquidators: I'd meet a girl I liked and say, Let's get to know each other.
What for? You're a Chernobylite now. I'd be scared to have your kids. I took off all my clothes and threw them down the trash chute. I gave my cap to my little son. He really wanted it. And he wore it all the time. You can write the rest of this yourself. I wouldn't dare. It's a sin.
I heard the doctors talking about my little girl: When we go home for a month she asks me, 'when are we going back to the hospital? It took me four years to finally get a paper from the doctors that confirmed the connection between ionized radiation and her terrible condition At the hospital they play with their dolls.
The little girls close their eyes and the dolls die" cited in Alexievich, , 81 "This wasn't just ordinary cancer, which everyone is already afraid of, but Chernobyl cancer, even worse After dying the men from Chernobyl are radioactive. The graves of the fire- fighters who died in the Moscow hospitals and were buried near Moscow are still considered radioactive; people walk around them and don't bury their relatives nearby.
Even the dead fear these dead. She studied journalism in Belarus, at the University of Minsk. Her book was published following the 10th anniversary of the accident.
In her epilogue she wrote: But the Zone, it's a separate world, a world within the rest of the world, and it's more powerful than anything literature has to say. During this time, Alexievich too, developed cancer. Liquidators But it was not as if everything was devastation. After the poorly designed reactor was accidentally exploded by incompetent staff, heroic events unfolded.
While the authorities were covering up the disaster with lies, and claiming once and again that everything was under control, they were also mobilizing all the buses they could from all over Ukraine for the evacuations, and they were frantically recruiting men from every corner of the Soviet Union to come work in deactivation Fig.
And in those times the Russian shows how great he is. How unique The troops from the Baltic States refused to come We'll never be Dutch or German. But there'll always be plenty of heroes" cited in Alexievich, Figure Monument to According to one source these men were three hundred thousand. Memorials and monuments in Chernobyl, Fig. The Chernobyl Museum in Kiev commemorates them as well, along with the unsuspecting firemen who put out the first fires, Fig.
About these heroes and commemoration, Sergei Sobolev, from the Chernobyl museum management, told Alexievich: They got radiated the worst. They had com lead vests, but the radiation was coming from below, and they were not protected there.
They wore cheap imitation-leather boots. They spent two minutes on the roof each day, and then Figure Monument to they were discharged, given a certificate and an award" the firemen cited in Alexievich, "They were young guys. They're dying now, but they understand that if it wasn't for them, the catastrophe could have been a lot worse These are people who came from a certain culture, the culture of the great achievement. They were a sacrifice Those people don't exist anymore, just their documents in our museum I consider them heroes, not victims.
They call it an accident. But it was a war. The Chernobyl monuments look like war monuments" cited in Alexievich, This kind of memorialization can be seen as an attempt by the Soviet System to gloss out their faults, to purge their many burdens of guilt.
There are no memorials for the politicians, for the three engineers in Source: It's easy for these monuments to become just one more layer of discomfort on the already uncomfortable heritage. What is not easy is to separate the victims from the perpetrators. Most of them were radiated. The reactor and all the sand dropped from helicopters Source: It has too many problems and hardly any solution.
It only has new phases and different angles. Perpetrators as well as victims want to assimilate. Many want to forget, some want to remember, most just want to go on with their lives. But they also want to tell the story, they want the world to know. Or if we had understood Chernobyl. But we don't know how to capture any meaning from it. We're not capable of it. So what's better, to remember or to forget? Quoted on: Structure, Reasons, Consequences, Response.
Bachelor thesis [not published] Cottbus: Alexievich, S. The oral history of a nuclear disaster. The Chernobyl Forum. Health, Environment and Socio-Economic Impacts. International Atomic Energy Agency. Twenty Years of Experience. Chernobyl awaits tourists. The Bradt City Guide. Chalfont St Peter, Bucks, England: Bradt Travel Guides Ltd. Fusco, P. A Photo Essay. April The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health. Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University.
The splitting of the atom and Chernobyl. World Health Organization Chernobyl: The KdF-seaside resort Prora Fig. Since Prora was the largest construction project of the Third Reich which reached this level of completion, and it remains the largest Third Reich building in existence, it was designated a listed monument in Fig. It is about 4. Seng, Prorer Wiek, between Binz and Sassnitz. Towards the end Nevertheless, Prora has been considered as uncomfortable heritage of the construction phase in not only after the last political change in , but since its planning.
The fate of the KdF- seaside resort in Prora after it was acquired by the German government and later the Department for the Protection of Historical Monuments will be discussed, as well as the present situation and future plans.
KdF advertisment association and its ideology. Joy should be brought by a wide range of leisure activities, such as sports, concerts, theatre, travelling, holiday, etc.
All those endeavours were meant to completely control the working population. Already after two years of its Source: Particularly cruises on KdF-ships, partly built specially for the organisation, enjoyed great popularity. Cruises as an example for rather elitist leisure activities became available for the average German worker.
At the same time the situation in Germany became increasingly explosive due to very low wages, comparably high expenses, and the divesture of labour organisations; the KdF association, on the other hand, became very popular. However, only one of the five planned complexes was ever built: After the plans were made and the property was seized on the same year, an architectural contest took part the following year in which Albert Speer4 invited eleven architects to participate.
Clemens Klotz, who 4 Albert Speer was one of the leading architects in the Nationalist Socialist regime, Hitler appointed him as Minister for Armament and War Production and later on, the entire wartime economy was under his authority. The constructions began in May and were intended to be completed by Nevertheless, the outbreak of World War II in stopped the construction activities. Whereas the island was barely populated in winter, the construction of the seaside resort brought thousands of workers, and thus, customers to the island, as well as job opportunities for unskilled labourers, farmers, and craftsmen.
Even public infrastructure such as railways and streets were built in order to reach the former natural woodland the first train connection Berlin-Binz via Prora opened in May For the Source: In addition, several small enterprises were set up, bringing the number of companies involved to about fifty.
Rostock, Zadnicek, , Prora-seaside resort after the workers had been withdrawn from the construction site Source: Over 2. To maintain the workers efforts and even to improve them, board, lodging, and good quality entertainment was provided. With the start of the War, the construction abruptly stopped in September ; vacationers never reached the Prora seaside-resort Rostock, Zadnicek, Fig.
And perhaps, in a very direct way Prora did not have anything to do with the War. However, it had a lot to do with propaganda and preparation for the War, with physical and mental exercises. The structural works of almost all the buildings of the complex were finished at the time when the workers and site managers had to move to military or other construction sites.
Rostock, Zadnicek, ; NEUE KULTUR, Post-War Period After the end of the War, the occupying Soviet power organized a radical disassembling of all movable parts such as heating elements, doors, windows, prefabricated wooden units, and even tracks, with the help of German inhabitants, who were often the same people that had supported the construction several years before.
After the Soviets left in , the remaining ruins were left open for building material extraction and plundering; even bricks were taken out of the walls.
After a few people died during the demolition period, the southernmost apartment building, as well as parts of the northern constructions, was blasted.
Therewith, a Thieme, in Prora until militarization of the former KdF-resort began. In the reconstruction of the left three southern and two northern buildings started.
The former entrance hall and the restaurant-theatre-complex in the middle part were turned into a House of the Army, comprising a restaurant, a sports hall, and a saloon for about 1. Again, many of the workers who had constructed and deconstructed the building complex now joined the reconstruction.
Additionally, The Source: The largest reconstruction works ended in ; nevertheless, Prora stayed in a permanent construction phase. The two northernmost buildings, which remained in ruins, were used for military purposes and blasting exercises until the s.
Different military divisions inhabited the buildings during the GDR period. Main platform of The megalomania of the seaside resort Prora, its monumentality and the Nazi Party rally grounds overwhelming size was characteristic of numerous Third Reich at Nuremberg building projects, such as the Nazi Party rally grounds in Nuremberg Fig.
However, a seaside resort for The various challenges the plans involved were, until then, only found in urban planning. Hitler, on the occasion of the German Architecture and Handicraft exhibition in Munich in Source: Postcard, stated: If peoples experience great times inwardly, they will design those times outwardly, as well.
This word will then be more convincing than the spoken one: The Staircases of acc. The Prora building complex sought to make the grade to embody National Socialist ideology. The size in particular served to depersonalize the people, to show how insignificant a single person Source: Pinkepank, was, as well as to distribute mainly by the length and the placement of the complex and the efficient staircases and direct them to the festival hall in the middle, in which the propaganda took place.
Here the staircase sections allegorize the control towers, with the dining rooms between the apartment blocks, in which the vacationers came together, acting as the entrances to the medieval city. The wall itself was tall 6-storeys high and slim only comprising the width of the hallway and the length of one room.
Speaking about Nazi- Source: Rittich, style, however, is inappropriate. Rostock, Zadnicek, ; Source: The Facade of the shore side of the Northern Complex Source: Twenty thousand vacationers were planned to stay in Prora, each for 10 days. The specific uncomfortable aspect is manifested in the purpose the complex was built for. Workers should be distracted from their social and economic 6 Heimatschutzstil is an architectural style of the early 20th Century which opposed the principles of modern construction.
The seaside resort served to equalise the population, to manipulate and depersonalize it. Particularly the placing of forced labour under very poor conditions during the War is striking, as well. The uncomfortable feeling a restricted army zone gave in GDR times, the unawareness of what was happening inside, the military exercises along the beautiful Prorer Wiek, have to be added here.
Staircase with Prora — present and future broken windows in the Northern Complex Although Prora is a historical monument of immense importance, the German Treasury has made attempts to commercialize it and sell it to private investors for several years. At the moment, the state of decay is already far advanced reaching from a partly renovated and used building in the middle via a complex with broken windows in the north and south to the ruins that are partly fenced Fig.
The after-use of a decrepit building complex of such a size including the different layers of discomfort is challenging indeed. The military left the site until ; then it became open to the public. From then on, up to approximately parts of the building Source: Pinkepank, complex were still in use; a youth hostel with almost 1.
Many of the users left because the buildings were kept for sale to financially strong investors in Since Figure Dokumentationszentrum Prora, Only very recently, all five single blocks left were sold to different investors Ostseezeitung, The new investors plan a new youth hostel and a camp site in addition to a spa and a hotel, vacation homes and rented apartments Fig. Currently, the future uses of Source: Pinkepank, the site, their appropriateness as measured by its historical significance and whether its original appearance ought to be kept or Figure Future Plans for not, are being discussed Fig.
Right now the discomfort of the the former KdF-seaside resort complex lies in its state of decay, the size and the uncertainty about how to present it most appropriately. Conclusion In the present paper the uncomfortable aspects of the Prora-seaside Source: FTD, resort are identified by analyzing the historical as well as the present and future use of the complex.
Bernhard M. Hoppe, in: Bornholdt et al, Fig. This is particularly the risk when objects are presented which have only a little to do with the actual history of the site, but appear as crowd pullers e. Pinkepank, exhibits in Prora reaching from motorbikes to all kinds of everyday objects , or the site is used for vacation homes. To analyse those issues in greater detail further investigations will be done. Deutsche Wochenschau [Online] Available from: The Attraction of Death and Disaster.
Verlagsgesellschaft Potsdam mbH. Ostseezeitung Nuremberg [Online] Available from: Rittich, W. Berlin [Online] Available from: Links Verlag. Spode, H.
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Zur Sonne, zur Freiheit! Free University of Berlin, Institute for Tourism. TAZ Tageszeitung Article: It has also faced attacks associated with both war and terrorism. The paper will explore this notion in four separate parts. The first part discusses the relevant theoretical perspectives with reference to the LU.
The second, third and fourth parts will, respectively, describe and consider the implications of the acts of war, terror and disaster that have afflicted the London Underground. The possible reasons for this status will be briefly introduced before they are analysed in more detail in a second separate paper.
Whilst the two terms are broadly synonymous this paper adopts the following definition for Uncomfortable Heritage. However, there are applicable existing theoretical approaches available from the sub-fields of tourism research and studies, commonly termed Dark Tourism or Thanatourism.
It is questionable whether collective experience of and uncomfortable heritage sites themselves should only be considered in terms of dark tourism Ibid. Arguably, most tourists, like commuters consider the LU as a means to an end, for travel and not, an end in itself, as a tourist destination. However, individual LU memorials are an exception as they represent potential dark tourist attractions Seaton, , Personal experience suggests that LU memorials do attract attention from the friends or family of victims.
Furthermore, whilst coincidental tourist interest in these memorials, whether caused by morbid curiosity or circumstantial opportunity, constitutes dark tourism for Lennon and Foley Ibid , it does not constitute Thanatourism for Seaton, due to the lack of a pre-meditated motivation to visit the memorial , It is, as a landscape scarred by recurrent tragedy much closer to the concept of traumascapes.
The London Underground at War Figure 1: By mid-September around , people a night slept at underground stations Ibid. London Source: BBC, a meningitis and scarlet fever Ibid. These conditions are expertly portrayed by the photography of Bill Brandt Fig.
Underground Figure 3: The most significant loss of life occurred at Bethnal Green station on 3rd March Table 1: Underground fatalities during World War Two air-raids Source: The memorial Significant loss of life also occurred at the Balham, Bank and Bounds plaque at Balham Green Stations where 68, 56 and 19 people died respectively when they suffered direct hits. These were devastating as the image of Bank Station immediately following the incident demonstrates Fig 4.
Bank station following the direct hit of 11 th January Source: Merrill Source: The memorial plaque at Bounds Green Source: The air- raids caused widespread architectural damage and resulted in the deaths and injury to many people.
In contrast, the events of terrorism and disaster that have afflicted the LU came without warning. Felt like I was being electric — did not know where I was.
Seemed unreal like was not on tube Felt current running through my body. The earliest terrorist attacks on the LU date to the late 19 th Century and are attributed to Irish Nationalists Smith, Following attacks in and the first deadly attack came in when the Aldersgate bomb killed one person and injured sixty Smith, On the 15th May a bomb was discovered in Westbourne Park station which is most often attributed to the work of the Suffragettes Cooper, c.
However, in terms of causalities and fatalities the IRA attacks were dwarfed by the coordinated terrorist attack that took place on the 7 th July On that day four bombs exploded within 50 minutes of each other during the rush hour killing 56 people including the 4 suicide bombers and injuring over Home Office, , Three of those bombs exploded at locations between stations on the LU and accounted for 39 of the fatalities and over of the injured Ibid.
The final fourth bomb exploded at 9. One such case was patient H. The psychological impact on the collective was less pronounced with commuters returning to use the tube the next day Guardian. However, this may have been made more significant had the attempted repetition of the attacks two weeks later not have failed. Rush hour on 8th July Figure 8: The planned Hyde Park memorial Source: Acts of terrorism have physically and psychologically transformed the LU in similar ways to the acts of war.
Although not intentional, disasters have just as much potential to transform landscapes. It has experienced both train crashes and fires, each made even more traumatic but their Source: DoE, subterranean locales. The LU has witnessed numerous crashes in its history including the Chancery Lane crash of which injured 30 Figure However, the most serious train crash to have occurred on the LU was at Moorgate station on the 28th February The collision crushed the first and second cars to approximately half their original length Fig.
The Kings Cross due to accidental fire since it had opened in DoT, , The first fire engines arrived at 7. From the time of the flashover it took 30 fire engines 6 hours to contain the fire Ibid, When the smoke had cleared 31 people had lost their lives and over 60 had been injured Ibid, The architectural impact of the fire was severe.
The image below demonstrates how brutal the conditions must have been in the ticket hall during the flash over Fig. Again, besides the physical loss associated with the fire there were also psychological consequences with vast numbers of people reporting psychological trauma after the Source: Merrill event Rosser et al, , 4.
This fact was vividly demonstrated by the fact that often the memorial clock was physically masked from view by the daily line service display board. On one coincidental visit the author was able to engage in conversation a fire- Source: On this 21 st anniversary it was also observed that the red roping placed around the plaque and the flowers placed by the family of one of the victims drew far more attention from the passing public than was usually the case Fig.
A uncomfortable heritage which is most often neglected by the common traveller but which for some transforms the LU into a space of Source: Merrill remembrance Conclusion In conclusion, discussion of the acts of war, terror and disaster that have afflicted the LU has demonstrated its uncomfortable heritage. Firstly, as potential individual dark tourist attractions characterised by memorials.
In other words, traumatic events and their physical and psychological implications have reshaped the LU and the individual and collective experience of it. The result is a two-fold transformation of the LU linked to the original event and then again, to the physical and psychological codification of that event in the landscape of the underground and in the minds of its users.
The physical codification of events has resulted in the erection of memorials throughout and sometimes outside the LU. The psychological codification process is characterised by; the PTSD of victims; the necessitated sublimation of traumatic events by everyday users; and the quiet and arguably sacred remembrance of the friends and families of victims. The overall outcome is a place physical and psychologically transformed by trauma.
It is a subterranean landscape that through necessity lives alongside it traumatic past, a past related to war, terror and disaster. The LU as a traumascape represents an implicit example of uncomfortable heritage in comparison to more explicit examples which often become the focus of dark tourism.
Thirty hurt after tube crash [Online] Available from: Nation remember 7 July victims [Online] Available from: The race is on for a Bethnal Green monument [Online] Available from: Bill Brandt Archive Ltd. Cooper, N. The Underground at War [Online] Available from: Pathological fear, shattered assumptions, or betrayal?
Loss of the Assumptive World: Nights Underground in Darkest London: The Blitz, , Cercles, 17, pp. London commuters moving again [Online]Available from: The day after the attacks on London [Online] Available from: Pp Air-raid damage at Bank station, January Photograph, Inventory no: C, Roane,K. What it takes to keep the blood off the tracks, U. Psychiatric aspects of disaster: Guided by the Dark: Consuming Dark Tourism: History [Online] Available from: The African Quarter in Berlin Hans Hack Introduction Berlin is a city, which in its relatively short life has had to deal with many difficult heritages such as being the capital of the Third Reich and the capital of the GDR.
This may result from a lack of any obvious tangible monuments to the period. However, a striking memorial to this time can be found just outside the city centre in an area where the thematic street naming works to create a map of memory. It consists of 23 streets whose names are remnants of and reactions to the difficult heritage of German colonialism. They help one to orientate in the city but also in the colonial history of Germany.
Figure 1: The African Quarter Source: Furthermore it will look at how these names have been dealt with over time.
In this way, it will show how the African quarter manifests all stages of German colonialism and the connecting politics dealing with the past: Honold As a conclusion the paper will look at ways of how to deal with this difficult heritage. The Creation of German Colonies Figure 2: German Colonies in Before the creation of the African quarter, certain events occurred in Africa Berlin which influenced the street naming.
In to the so called Berlin Conference took place which was attended by many European powers without any participation of native Africans. At the conference, the majority of Africa was divided into colonies and Germany officially became a colonial power. As a consequence institutions and associations were opened in the capital of the new colonial power such as the colonial department in the foreign ministry in To increase the interest of the public in the German colonies, a colonial exhibition was held in the Treptower Park in Berlin in This was done in a way by which these people had to decorate and stage within reconstructed African villages to portray a stereotypical image Source: The exhibition was well visited and it was therefore Figure 3: Kaiser Wilhelm II decided to open up a colonial museum a few years later which included some remains from the colonial exhibition.
Due to the ever growing marks that colonialism left on Berlin, it was only consequential that the colonial commitment should also be reflected within the cityscape of the capital Honold These streets were the first ones laid out in the area where the African quarter can be found today.
It is therefore not uncommon that certain topical coherences in the street names can be found in many quarters of this time. This was also the case with the African quarter where new streets, connecting to the existing ones, were laid out for new residential housing.
His intension was to exhibit animals and natives from Africa. Due to the outbreak of the First World War his plans were however stopped but the name giving had already taken place. Figure 4: In he founded the first German trading station in that area which became the starting point of the German colonialisation of South West Africa. Apart from trading with alcohol and weapons he also negotiated many land downloading contracts with the local Nama tribe. Instead of dealing with English miles, as the Nama presumed, he used German miles which gave him five times more land.
Later, these illegal land grabs were one of the reasons that Source: The name refers to the Berlin Conference in which the Guinea border dispute between France and Portugal was settled.
The street bears yet again witness to memorialising the German colonial commitment in Africa. The area was an independent free Boer state from the mid 19 th century until when it became part of the British Empire. It was named in honour of the 25th anniversary of the death of the German explorer and geographer Gustav Nachtigal It was inaugurated in and named after the Otawi copper mine in German SWA which was founded in The Otawi Mine and Railway Association, who had its headquarters in Berlin, had the goal to exploit natural recourses of the region.
The Loss of German Colonies Until this point all the street names in the African quarter were testaments of German expansionism. Nevertheless the new streets in the African quarter were still given African names. Carl Peters a region and town in Tanzania. In contrast to the streets that were inaugurated before the First World War, these street names show that the African landscape and its people, and not the German influence on Africa, were put in the foreground, Hunold The names can therefore be understood as nostalgic reminiscence to the German colonies but without the political intensions of new expansionism.
The Rise of Nazism Source: In a part of the Londonerstrasse, leading onto the Figure 7: Peters Fig. He was seen as the founder of the German East African colony which today partly consists of Tanzania, Burundi and Ruanda. By cheating and using force he made various dubious contracts with local chiefs Aikins and Kopp ; p. The contracts guaranteed him, by German law, large amounts of land in east Africa. In he obtained German protectorate status for these areas which laid out the foundation for the German colony in east Africa.
In he was shortly suspended from his position due to raping and executing his African employers. This fact was happily ignored by the Nazi regime. In the same year of the inauguration of the Petersallee, an Source: Hack, association for a group of allotment gardens was founded, called Dauerkolonie Togo e. The name bares reference to the former German colony of Togo. It can be interpreted as a sign that the colony would always exist in the German memory. Accepting Independance The last street that was built in the African quarter was the Ghanastrasse, inaugurated in The Ghana region was long known as the golden cost which was a major place for the slave trade.
The street was however named after the state of Ghana which became independent in The name can therefore be seen as a concession to the decolonialisation period Honold, Figure 8: Street signs In , local Berlin delegates complained about the fact that the Petersallee was named after a murderer and racist.
It was proposed by the alternative list to rename the street after an African freedom fighter such as Hendrik Witbooi or Nelson Mandela. Since no majority with other parties could be found, it was proposed to name the street Namibiastrasse. No majority for this proposal could be found either. Eventually the social democrats, proposed to name the street after Albert Schweitzer. The proposal was declined because a street, Source: To escape the hiv. Van der Heyden ; p.
The street was therefore not renamed but the meaning was changed from the murderer Peter to a Peter that was a not very well known Berlin CDU politician. However the meaning was only officially changed and its original meaning is still intact due to the context it has with the other streets in the African quarter. Since then various attempts have been done to change the street Source: Hack, names that have been named after colonialist pioneers but with no success.
Conclusion The history of the streets names in the African quarter shows that the choosing of the street names is a political act that is decided by ideological needs and political distribution of forces. The street names are therefore remnants of the German colonial past and the related politics towards it over time.
The names reveal all the German political attitudes towards colonialism in Africa over time. Five phases can be observed: The German intension of ownership and expansionism is reflected within the names between and The nostalgic attitude towards the loss of the African colonies is reflected within the names between and Using the colonial history as propaganda is reflected in the names from The African quarter has in effect unintentionally become a monument to the difficult heritage of German colonialism.
However, it is not generally recognised because the original meanings and messages of the street names have mostly been forgotten. The quarter could therefore give the chance for a critical reflection on German colonialism. How this would be done is arguable.
The names could be changed to anti colonialists such as the freedom fighter Hendrik Witbooi or Nelson Mandela. This would add a new layer of forgotten aspects of colonialism but would also take away another.
From a conservation point of view, the cultural significance should be preserved. As long as people remain unaware of the true heritage of the site, the street names remain innocuos.
However, with proper educational and interpretative practices, this site could initiate a discussion on whether it is appropriate to retain these street names or rather use a process of name changing as a way of addressing this difficult heritage. Maybe adding an additional layer, that would not hinder the function of the street names, could be the answer.
There is great potential for this site to become a memorial landscape. Through proper interpretation it could become more than it actually is. Such ways could be organised tours, signs or maps that would raise awareness of the sites and its connecting history. Bibliography Aikins, J. Van der Heyden, U. Koloniale Metropole Berlin, Eine Spurensuche. Deutsche Kolonialgeschichte. It was constructed as a supposedly invincible defence line along the European Atlantic coasts from Norway to Southern France Fig.
However, it was never completed and not invincible either. This became clear during the allied invasion in June , when the wall did not protect Europe occupied by German troops at that time. The remains of this giant fortification line can still be found today.
Along the km Norwegian, Belgian, French, British, Danish, German and Dutch shoreline one can find thousands of bunker constructions of all shapes and sizes Neumann, , Atlantic Wall Map Source: It consisted mainly of batteries, bunkers and minefields that stretched from the French-Spanish boarder into Norway. Film reports presented the defence line as an indestructible wall in the west.
Built in order to defend against an anticipated Allied invasion of the Continent from Great Britain the bunkers housed machine guns, antitank guns, and light artillery. Minefields and antitank obstacles were planted on the beaches themselves, and underwater obstacles and mines were planted in the waters just off shore.
The intention of all this was to destroy the Allied landing craft before they could even unload. Figure 2 Submarine pen during construction works Fall Source: Bundesarchiv, in: Rolf, , 62 The building process can be divided into three major phases: The first construction phase began in summer The second building stage began in fall after Germany had caused the two-front-war; plans were made to build batteries such as the ones in Cap-Gris-Nez on the Channel Islands and in Norway as part of a defence strategy against England.
In a directive from December 14 th — three days after the declaration of war to the USA — priorities concerning the fortification of the West coast were assigned as follows: Norway, the French-Belgian coast, parts of Normandy and Brittany where the first submarine pens had already been built Fig.
In total he ordered the construction of Maybe more than that, my documents got burned in the war. The memorial plaque at Bounds Green Source: You must pass the town of Gamboa, at the end of Gaillard Rd, and follow the signs. For a taste of tropical Panama, this trip takes you to the hyper-charged capital.
It's a feeling of doom" Source: Pinkepank, was, as well as to distribute mainly by the length and the placement of the complex and the efficient staircases and direct them to the festival hall in the middle, in which the propaganda took place. Bunks crowd larger dorms, but air-con keeps them cool. I was already sitting in Slyunkov's reception.
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