The Encyclopedia of GIS provides an essential reference work for all three categories of users. softcopy formats such as PDF, or served up over the web. Encyclopedia of GIS. Edited by S. Shekhar and H. Xiong. 7 Internationally renowned. Editorial Board, Shashi. Shekhar world leader in the field. 7 Includes GIS. Editors: Shekhar, Shashi, Xiong, Hui, Zhou, Xun (Eds.) New In This Edition: This second edition of the Encyclopedia of GIS includes 30% to 50% new content. It provides up-to-date information on emerging topics such as spatial big data, smart-phone GIS, urban computing and mobile.

Encyclopedia Of Gis Pdf

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The Encyclopedia of GIS features a comprehensive, authoritative treatment of this subject matter, with a simple A-Z format providing easy access to the field. [PDF] Encyclopedia of GIS by Shashi Shekhar, Hui Xiong. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Encyclopedia . PDF | On Jan 1, , John P Wilson and others published Encyclopedia of Geographic provides solid support for a wide variety of GIS mod-.

In , the U.

This development marked the first time GIS technology was used for large-scale digital mapping. In the same year, the U. GIS technology proliferated in the s.

One of the first GIS projects to be implemented on a statewide level was initiated in in Maryland. In the s and s, the GIS market saw the introduction of several applications.

GIS technology has rapidly evolved over the past 30 years. The revolution in the areas of information technology and communication technology together with the lowering cost of computer hardware has played an important role in the development and use of GIS. In , Ray R.

GIR managed to bring down the high cost bar- riers and specialized talent, which impeded easy access to the technology. Impacts and Issues In the technology-driven twenty-first century, GIS is applied in every field where spatial information is required. Collecting weather data, enhancing weather forecasting technologies, mapping natural disasters like floods and earthquakes, and providing land and property-related information are some of the areas where GIS technology is applied extensively.

Besides, it can be used to track human activities, which in turn can help in restoring the quality of our ecosystem. Apart from these, GIS has greatly benefited several areas of study such as environmental studies, geography, geology, planning, and business marketing among others.

However, several issues surround the use of GIS.

Encyclopedia of GIS

Because this technology provides all sorts of data on a particular geographic location, there are privacy concerns. Its adoption has given rise to debates.

The data stored in GIS are easily accessible to anyone in public libraries, which run on public funds and have to fulfill the growing demand for accessibility to GIS maps. The technology has the potential to be misused for terrorist or other criminal activities. Moreover, various government agencies are working toward restricting or destroying the availability of crucial information. The costs associated with maintaining GIS are very high.

As a result, this technology is mostly used by government bodies or agencies on a shared-cost basis.

Distributed GIS

However, this has thrown open a debate regarding the ownership of the data. Moreover, because of shared access, agencies have to deal with the threat of data integrity. There is a risk of the information being manipulated or altered. The use of GIS has also given rise to international disagreements.

Praise For The First Edition: This is very welcome to those practitioners who have been less exposed to some of the mathematical and computational aspects of GIS. This is also very welcome to the researcher or graduate student within any of the interdisciplinary areas that use GIS. Calarco, ACM Computing Reviews, November, "This single-volume reference work is a highly welcome … addition to the rapidly advancing field of geographic information systems.

Peer-reviewed entries from over contributors cover 41 topical subfields, with an overall emphasis on computational aspects of GIS. In early s, his research developed core technologies behind in-vehicle navigation devices as well as web-based routing services, which revolutionized outdoor navigation in urban environments.

His recent research played a critical role in evacuation route planning for homeland security and received multiple recognitions including the CTS Partnership Award for significant impact on transportation. He pioneered the research area of spatial data mining via pattern families e.

Editorial Reviews

He received a Ph. Xiong received his Ph. His general area of research is data and knowledge engineering, with a focus on developing effective and efficient data analysis techniques for emerging data intensive applications. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser.

download this book Print 1. download Print.Enterprise GIS[ edit ] Enterprise GIS refers to a geographical information system that integrates geographic data across multiple departments and serves the whole organisation.

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This model enabled the application of computer technology to cartography, thus replacing hand cartography. This is very welcome to those practitioners who have been less exposed to some of the mathematical and computational aspects of GIS. The location can be expressed in many different ways, such as latitude and longitude, address, or ZIP code.