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An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding - Volume I, John Locke, [gu] Projeto venarefeane.cf, 1,46 MB, 2. An Essay Concerning Humane. Ensaio sobre o entendimento humano (EEH), John Locke (). p. 1 / 4. Embed or link this publication. Description. John Locke. Popular Pages. p. 1. Ensaio acerca do Entendimento Humano (em inglÃªs, An Essay Concerning Human John Locke - Le Livros - Baixar Livros em PDF, ePUB e MOBI. Second .
Nesse sentido, seguiremos sumariamente os seguintes passos: 1. Os resultados subsequentes do projeto de Kant. Palavras-chave: Kant. Some of these deinitions refer to the work of dogmatic tradition in the history of philosophy, others report to a new meaning given in-relation-to or from-the critical work and transcendental philosophy2.
However, on this mater, the result much disappoints hope and has escaped our eager hands. The other advantage comes more appropriate to the nature of human understanding and it is to prove whether the task is proportionate to what can be known or not, and the relation between this mater and the concepts of experience upon which all our judgments must always be 2 There are many works consulted during preparation of this research.
We mention the most relevant for our relection. Laywine, A Kant's early metaphysics and the origins of the critical philosophy. Volume 3 NAKs. California: Ridgeview Publishing Company. Paris: Presses Universitaries de France. Paris: Vrin. In this sense, metaphysics is a science of the limits of human reason Kant comes to the conclu- sion that we can not apply this category in any cognitive situation5.
On the other hand, the task of knowing how far we can progress with the use of the understanding in the expansion of knowledge would not provide new knowledge, but it would avoid the illusion of seeking or stating what is beyond our limits. The problem of stating this or that positive knowledge about something shifts to an earlier point and leads of to take into account the conditions upon which this or that knowledge may be pronounced.
Yet in the full s, once entirelly developed the horizon of criti- cal philosophy, in the beginning of the manuscript on Welche wirklichen Fortschrite sind die, die Metaphysik und seit Leibnizens Wolfs Zeiten in 4 We have used two translations as references for the reading and interpretation of the text in german, one in spanish and the other one in portuguese. However, the translation used in the text was done by us.
Progress of Metaphysics 6, Kant begins by stating that metaphysics is "a sea without shore where progress leaves no marks" Kant Ak XX, However, he also questions as follows: "What is exactly that reason seeks out of metaphysics?
What ultima- te purpose Endzweck does it have with its formulation? Thus, metaphysics would be "the science that purposes the progress of the sensible knowledge to the supersensible through re- ason " Kant XX Ak, ; italics added by us.
The sensible knowledge would concern to the objects of the sensibility, which are studied by the sciences of possible experiences; and the supersensible would reach a kind of knowledge that does not concern to those kinds of experiences.
Within this framework, Kant operates a reduction or a delimitaton of the meaning of ontology that Christian Wolf considered to be the prime philosophy.
Against it, I quote Kant, namely: Ontology is that science as part of metaphysics which constitutes a system of all concepts and principles of understanding, but only to the extent that refers to objects that can be given to the sensibility and be certi- ied by the experience. Ontology does not touch the supersensible, ul- timate purpose, however, of the metaphysics, thus does not belong to this last one but as propaedeutics, as porch or atrium of the mataphy- sics itself and it is called transcendental philosophy for it contains the conditions and irst elements of all our a priori knowledge.
Any excess in the atribution of coverage of the presented con- cepts must be avoided while reading this paragraph. First, the phrase "all our a priori knowledge" refers only to all our a priori knowledge re- garding the objects of cognitive experience, as we may specify from what is said at the beginning of the quote. Buenos Aires: Eudeba Publisher. There is salso a work by Feliz, Duke Estudio Preliminar. IN Kant, I.
Madrid: Tecnos Editorial. Thus, Kant states that "ontology is a resolution of know- ledge in a priori concepts of the understanding and has its use in expe- rience" Kant Ak XX, Still, a con- troversial point would be whether this deinition of ontology includes the objects of mathematics or knowledge by framing of concepts, or not.
We understand that although at times the excerptions may be am- biguous, implying that it comes to given objects, it is pertinent to state that it refers to sensible objects both pure and empirical.
Therefore, it would efectively include objects like numbers or geometrical igures and also physical objects.
In turn, and secondly, a relation of equivalence between ontolo- gy and transcendental philosophy is setled. Hence, we have yet ano- ther issue that is neither trivial nor unproblematic: the writing of the s reduces "transcendental philosophy" to an "ontology" and this one to the "science of the concepts and principles that refers to objects that can be given to the sensibility".
We believe that along the develo- pment of GMS Grounds and KPV The Critique of Practical Reason there is another meaning of the wording "transcendental philosophy" that includes not only "the science of the concepts and principles that refers to objects that can be given to the sensibility" but also "the inves- tigation about the supreme principle of morality", whereas a special kind of knowledge extends only to the principles of pure reason, with nothing empirical.
But Kant, controversially, did not include this point in the text of Fortschrite Progress. In order to make our position explicit we can say that we per- ceive that Kant begins with a restricted notion of transcendental phi- losophy in the irst critique connected to ontology explicated in the theoretical reason, and later he develops the concept of extended trans- cendental philosophy including the supreme principle of morality ex- plicated in the practical reason.
This movement will be comprehended in Fortschrite Progress by Kant as the transition from ontology to metaphysics, as reframed concepts and, wherefore, difered from the Rev.
A critique of pure reason against dogmatic metaphysics According to Kant in Fortschrite Progress , metaphysics "in its scholastic concept is the system of all the principles of pure theoretical rational knowledge through concepts, in short: it is the system of pure theoretical philosophy" Kant XX Ak, Thus, the dogmatic meta- physical thinkers went forward with ontological principles beyond the objects of experience where nothing can be conirmed or refuted, that is, said as valid, precisely because it's no longer about the sensible, but the supersensible.
According to Kant, the three times dogmatism, skepticism and criticism are based on the very nature of the human capacity of knowledge in its operation. This means that it is not a continuous line of absolute overcome, but three times that can always restart according to the way reason operates.
In order to move forward on a comment of the "progress of me- taphysics" and understand the nature of a critique of pure reason, we shall divide the question into a formal section and a material section.
The formal part that concerns us for the purpose of observing the pro- gress of reason in trying to solve its necessary problems is divided by Kant into three steps: 1 To make the distinction between analytic judgments and synthe- tic one; 2 To formulate the question: how are a priori synthetic judgments possible? In this third point, about the possibility validity and evidence, we ind the indispensable syntactic and semantic elements we shall hi- ghlight.
At the same time, it is deterrent to move forward on the theore- tical knowledge beyond the objects of experience, as it is deined in its concepts and principles under the notion of ontology, the critique of pure reason sets the stage to advance the possibility of a knowledge with the mere principles of pure reason, which is being called here as metaphysics.
In this sense, Kant is conclusive: the results of a critique of pure reason would allow us to state that the "amplitude of theore- tical knowledge of pure reason does not extend beyond the objects of the sensibility" Kant, Ak XX, "no knowledge of the supersensible is possible with regard to the speculative capacity of reason" Kant, Ak XX, The restriction in the advance of knowledge by reason is given by the way Kant grants Rev.
Kant mentions two procedures with respect to the categories of the understanding and the ideas of reason: the scheme and the symbol Kant, Ak XX, These two pro- cedures provide referential rules semantic ones to the objectiication of the categories used in the formulation of the knowledge stated in judgments. If the referential rules are restrictive as for the use of the categories and limit what can be considered a valid theoretical know- ledge, then we shall ask along with Kant: "What kind of progress can metaphysics make on the supersensible?
It would go from philosophy as speculative science to philosophy as doctrine of wisdom Kant, Ak XX, The performed transition is from the theoretical reason, which tries to report on the cognitive ex- perience and its limits, to the practical reason, which tries to report on the practical experience or moral experience in a broad sense which is already pure, that is, only on principles of reason. Therefore we do not go from a physical knowledge of objects to a metaphysical knowledge of transcendent entities but from a domain of objects given to the sen- sibility to another domain, that of freedom.
As such, Kant explains in the Introduction to the third critique the location of the concepts used in one domain and in the other one. I quote Kant: The concepts, to the extent that they can be related to its objects and regardless of whether it is possible or not to have knowledge of them, have their ield Feld , which is determined simply according to the rela- tion its object has with our capacity of knowledge.
The part of this ield, wherein knowledge is possible for us, is a territory Boden for these concepts and for the capacity of corresponding knowledge. The part of this ield to which they dictate its laws is the domain Gebiet dithio of these concepts and the capacities of knowledge that it them Kant, KU XVII.
So then we have the scope of the objects given through the sen- sibility and here we ind the ontology and the scope of freedom and its respective concepts what Kant is pointing out in the text Fortschrite [Progress] as metaphysics.
Regarding the part concerned Rev. It will be good for metaphysics not to take concepts for things or even their names for concepts therefore reasoning entirely on emptiness. According to Kant, in the dogmatic metaphysics we make a sub- jective condition of thought the objective condition of possibility of things themselves.
Thus, we mistake concepts that may have a logical meaning with things that must be given in sensibility. Freud names this phenomenon schizophrenia. However, Kant shows that it is the procedure of a dogmatic metaphysics which has not made that funda- mental distinction and tries to prove any of these two statements: 1 A perfect metaphysical being must necessarily exist, for if it did not exist it would miss perfection.
The central issue herein will be about what existence is. While in dogmatism the existence is a predicate, in Kant the existence as a position will be propounded. This is how we understand Kant's deinition of ontology in KrV A Its fundamental propositions are merely principles of the exposition of the phenomenon, and the snooty name of ontology, which accredits to itself the pretension to ofer, in a systematic doctrine, a priori synthetic knowledge of things in themselves eg.
Indeed, what the Transcendental Analytics ofers are exposu- re principles of the phenomenon and not predicates of the being qua being or the thing-in-itself.
It is within this development of this transcendental semantics, out of the transcendental deduction of the categories, going through the schematism, to the principles of understanding that we shall ind the "ontological" argument. In other words, the ontological mater is solved within a drawing upon the what and the how of the judgments, that is, upon what is related and how it is related in the structure of a judgment.
Criticism as semantics The Critique of Pure Reason has been interpreted over the last two hundred years in many diferent ways, namely: as psychology, Rev.
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Among all the interpreters, to name a few, we may mention from the most contemporary ones as Patricia Kitcher , to the wide range of the ones called neo-Kantian as Herman Cohen or his opponents as Heidegger However, according to Kant, a critique of pure reason should provide us the elements to recognize whether a knowledge can be said valid or not. This would allow us to decide whether the metaphysical problems of transcendent objects are able to be solved by means of the- oretical reason or not.
Thereupon Kant said in KrV B 19 that the real problem of a critique of the reason is contained within the question: how are a priori synthetic judgments possible? In other words: what are the conditions of possibility for a statement to be considered valid, that is, to be determined as true or as false? We may say that this was the schedule of the interpretations on the critique over the past 50 years. Yet the problem would not be reduced only to the syntactic structure of propositions but it would be outspread to the meaning of the concepts involved in its formulation.
This is something Kant himself gradually understood in the pre-critical period. It can be seen especially at the end of the text on the false subtlety of the four igures of the syllogism and in that one on the only possible argument for the existence of God Perez, ; Valentim, Thus, among those who consider the structure of the judgment as the fundamental element and the starting point we can ind a subgroup that highlighted the semantic element.
Rudolf Zocher , e ss. Lask sought to perform the transcendental thought under the elimination of subjectivity in the form of a pure objective semantics. On this regard Zocher alleged: Rev. Buts, R. Wolfram Hogrebe in Kant und das Problem einer transzen- dentalen Semantik situated the central problem of Kant's doctrine as the issue of meaning Bedeutung. In order to develop his thesis he begins by examining the multiple signiication of the word "Konstitution" both in its non-philosophical and philosophical meanings up to the idea of "Wortgebrauchs" in Carnap, the analytic tradition and Kant.
With these elements and with the analysis of a part of the Critique of Pure Reason, especially the transcendental schematism, he propones a transcenden- tal semantics in Kant. The critique understood as a theory of resolution of the problems of reason and the transcendental semantics as its center allow us to respond to the issue unfolded by the skeptics against the dogmatics concerning the vali- dity of the theoretical objective knowledge, not in order to propone a "new metaphysics" but to propound a query upon the conditions of possibility validity of the propositions in a cognitive experience.
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Ensaio sobre o entendimento humano (EEH), John Locke (1632-1704)
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