Office Administration - Macmillan Caribbean. 42 Pages caribbean examinations council csec Macmillan English Grammar in Context Advanced with Doc Longman Office Administration for Csec 2nd Revis 1 - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Office admin book. Office Administration for Csec book. Read 2 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Completely matching the syllabus, this book equips st.

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Hodder Education. Mixed media product. Book Condition: new. BRAND NEW, Longman Office Administration for CSEC (2nd. Revised edition), Sylma Finisterre . Office Administration for CSEC E xaminations Allison Trenfield-Newsome and Colleen Walker CSEC is a registered trade mark(s) of the Caribbean. Hodder Caribbean Office Administration for CSEC® website home page.

Bob and his staff will be responsible for selling the goods and collecting payment in return as well as arranging for the distribution of the finished furniture to their customers.

Case 2: Universal Beverages has a general office in addition to its other functional areas and departments. Universal Beverages office carries out the functions of collecting, processing and protecting information. The office can collect information, for example if customers send enquiries about the prices of products or if a customer places an order for goods. The office can process the information collected by acting upon it, in this case ensuring that the order is received by the Sales Department.

The office is also responsible for preserving or storing information, which can be done in filing cabinets, or on microfilm, compact discs or computer hard drives. This is discussed further in Chapter 4. Universal Beverages will also disseminate information this means spreading or giving out information. The office will be providing information to customers, for example providing the price of a product to a customer who made an enquiry. The Office Manager s duties may include: The scope of the duties of the Office Manager will depend on the size and type of business.

Some common activities of today s modern offices include: In today s modern business economy many firms, both small and large, have become involved in outsourcing. Outsourcing involves contracting with another firm to perform a function or service that the firm previously performed itself.

Services and functions that are usually outsourced include making travel arrangements, data processing, advertising and preparing payroll. Firms often outsource in order to reduce costs and to focus on their core functions and operations.

Functional areas and departments Many medium-sized and large firms are organized based on functional areas or departments. Sales and Marketing Department The duties of this department include: Administrative Department: This department provides support services to the entire organization. This includes: The duties of this department include: Many of these departments will be discussed in more detail later in this book.

Organization structure organizational structure An organizational structure shows how the various tasks and individuals are coordinated in a formal way in order to achieve a common goal. An organizational chart is a graphical representation of a business s formal organizational structure.

Organizational charts are able to illustrate the titles and responsibilities of workers, as well as to display the lines of authority, lines of responsibility, the chain of command and the span of control.

The organizational chart will be able to identify how all the areas within the business are connected. A good organizational chart should be simple and easy to understand.

It should also be dated. Authority is the right of a superior to give orders and make decisions. Chain of command also called unity line of command. This is the structure that shows where authority flows from top to bottom in an organizational structure.

Span of control is the concept that indicates the number of subordinates that a supervisor can manage effectively.


A span of control may be described as narrow or wide. When a supervisor manages a small number of employees the span of control is said to be narrow, while if the supervisor manages a large number of employees the span of control is said to be wide. ITQ2 State two advantages of a narrow span of control and two advantages of a wide span of control.

The width of the span of control depends on: A skilful supervisor will also be able to manage large numbers of employees; the nature of the task simple routine tasks will mean that workers may need less supervision which will allow for a wide span of control. Benefits of an organization chart include: Disadvantages of organization charts: Creating organizational charts has been made easier because of special software that will create a company s chart automatically, from the list of employees.

This task will be made even easier if the employee names and their tasks are already in the business information technology database.

Some types of software are also capable of inserting employees photographs. This is the highest decision-making authority and is responsible for setting long-term goals for the organization. The middle management level or mid-management level will include positions such as the Accounts Manager and the Advertising Manager. The middle managers assist the executive-level managers in implementing the business strategies set in order to achieve the organization s goals.

The supervisory management level, also known as First-level management or Lower-level management, includes positions such as Accounts Supervisors. This level has the closest contact with employees and is responsible for putting the top and middle-level managers plans into action.

They also supervise workers to ensure that tasks are properly carried out. At the bottom of the hierarchy are the non-managerial employees or the general workforce which makes up the bulk of the employees within most organizations.

The lower level has the highest number of managers, with fewer middlelevel managers and the least number of managers at the top level. A flat organizational structure is typical of a small organization. It displays a few levels of management and a wider span of control. Over time, as small businesses grow into large businesses, the structure of the organization may change as new departments are added and more employees are hired. At this stage the larger firm might have a taller structure which is identified based on the many levels of management and a narrow span of control.

Ways of presenting organizational charts Organizational charts can be visually presented in three ways: Vertical charts Also known as the traditional method, having a vertical chart allows the chart to be read from top to bottom.

ITQ4 Differentiate between flat and tall organizational structures. Figure 1. The line structure is common among small businesses, where employees may be on a first-name basis and the owner is usually directly responsible for carrying out most tasks in the business.

Lateral relationships exist between employees who are on the same level, for example the auto mechanic and the auto electrician. The staff function includes persons who are hired to advise and support the line functions in areas such as public relations, janitorial services and legal services.

The staff function s authority is limited to making recommendations it has no authority over line managers or their employees. The line and staff structure is usually used by medium-sized to large companies. In Figure 1. Most structure therefore is divided into functional areas or departments. For example, all the marketing tasks will be done in the Marketing Department, which is staffed with specialists in the field of marketing.

This can lead to greater efficiencies within each department, since each functional area is manned by specialists. Many small as well as large businesses use the functional organizational structure to outline their solid chain of command and the specialist units. This will mean that these employees will report to both their functional manager as well as their project manager.

While the dual accountability may lead to some degree of confusion and contradiction, the matrix structure is ideal for obtaining creative and diverse ideas from across the various departments of the organization.

The matrix structure would be suitable in a case where a company is trying to create a design for a new product and would like input from specialists in the various departments.

Committees are usually established to carry out specific tasks such as making decisions and planning events. Committees may be standing committees, which are permanent in nature, or ad hoc committees, which are temporary committees that are created to perform a specific function and then disbanded.

A committee is usually made up of representatives from various groups in the organization. This creates a diverse pool of talents and expertise and so the committee is likely to make more informed decisions and suggestions. ITQ6 Explain the term lateral relationship.

For example, if the office activity of filing is centralized this will mean that all filing matters are dealt with in one location, usually under the supervision of someone who is a specialist in filing. All other departments in the organization would need to go to this centralized filing office to deal with all their filing needs.

Decentralization occurs when office activities are carried out in each individual department. Examples of office activities that will be centralized or decentralized include: The decision to centralize or decentralize activities will depend on the size of the business as well as the nature of the tasks being done. Small firms usually have one general office and may not be divided into departments. However, medium-sized and large firms which are divided into departments are better able to make decisions regarding centralization and decentralization.

Businesses may also be able to use both centralization and decentralization for example, a firm may centralize filing and legal services because of their sensitive nature, while it may decentralize duplicating and word processing.

Advantages of centralization The staff will be specially trained to carry out their functions and will be able to operate relevant equipment correctly.

Noisy equipment will be housed in one place. Supervision of the task will be improved and accountability maintained. The tasks performed will be standardized.

Disadvantages of centralization There may be a delay in work, for example if duplicating is centralized, when a worker from the Sales Department needs to make copies of a document they will have to go to the Duplicating Office which could be far away. The staff may find their jobs repetitive and boring.

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Advantages of decentralization Work can be carried out quickly, as equipment needed is close by. It allows for the maintenance of privacy.

Disadvantages of decentralization There may be a duplication of work throughout the various departments.

Costs may be increased as equipment will need to be provided for the various departments. Office layout office layout open-plan layout enclosed layout The office layout looks at the amount of space provided in the work environment as well as how desks, chairs and furniture and resources are placed in the office. The two main forms of office layout are the open-plan layout and the enclosed layout.

The enclosed layout is also referred to as a traditional or cellular layout. It includes rooms where employees work by themselves or in small groups. The enclosed layout will be enclosed by walls and accessible by a door. In the open-plan layout there is no privacy and workers are able to see and communicate with each other freely.

In order to create some privacy in an open-plan layout, sound-proof screens or dividers can be used to separate the employees. Factors determining the choice of office layout There are a number of factors that help to determine whether a business will choose to use an open-plan or enclosed layout: Advantages of the enclosed layout Allows employees to have greater levels of privacy, for example to meet with clients.

Employees are able to work in peace and quiet and concentrate on their tasks without interruption. The office may be locked, providing security for confidential information as well as valuable possessions. Employees within the enclosed layout can organize the office the way they want for example, they can choose where to place their desk.

Employees will also be able to personalize their space for example, with family photographs Disadvantages of the enclosed layout This layout does not encourage teamwork. Workers may feel isolated. Security devices, such as panic buttons, may need to be installed to protect the occupant of the office, who may be alone most of the time.

There is poor utilization of space, as walls take up space that could have been efficiently organized into an open-plan layout to hold more people. Increased supervision is needed to ensure that workers are actually doing their jobs behind the closed door.

There will be increased maintenance costs because of elements such as separate air-conditioning and lighting to run the enclosed office. Advantages of the open-plan layout Communication is easier as all the workers are in one area feedback will be immediate. Teamwork is encouraged and friendships are developed. Workers are easily supervised as they are all in one area. The open-plan layout is more cost effective in terms of bills such as cooling and lighting.

For example, one large room being centrally cooled by air conditioning will be cheaper than having to place air-conditioning units in several offices. Open-plan offices tend to be noisy and chaotic, and prevent workers from concentrating on their tasks. Sicknesses and infection can spread easily in an open environment.

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Completely matching the syllabus, this book equips students with the knowledge, skills and attitudes to function effectively in a modern office environment. It also seeks to nurture and improve students' social responsibility, personal management skills and positive work ethics, as well as providing the foundation for further business education. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. More Details Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

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Sort order. Oct 07, Subrina Dhanraj rated it it was amazing. A very helpful book for students interested in business. It teaches a lot and prepares you for the work environment. So interested in working with a company or organization, you should review this book and it'll guide you into becoming a successful business worker. May 09, Wilmer rated it it was amazing. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. Search inside document. S a ve D ocu m en t [PD F] On t h e seven t h g ra d e l a n g u a g e - Jia n g su version su p p ort in g m a t eria l s - T sin g h u a U n iversit y B eij in g U n iversit y st u d en t s efficien t l ea rn in g Follow the web link listed below to read "On the seventh grade language - Jiangsu version supporting materials - Tsinghua University Beijing University students efficient learning" PDF file.

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Office Administration - Macmillan Caribbean

Jaadianne Harvey. Juliet Hilaire. Oneeka Plutoqueenbee Adams. FamilyLife Ministriesheartofourexistence. Nicu Thadhani Parwani. Bro Johnson.

Nicholas Anthony McNamee. Nabeel Uddin.

Kandice Fyffe. Josh Bissoon. Crystal D. Latoya Anderson. Lisa B Arnold.Workers may feel isolated. IntroductiontoManagementInformationSystems Summary 1.

Information systems are a foundation for conducting business today. ITQ9 State two advantages of an open layout.

Rules and regulations Rules and regulations Third: Bro Johnson.